Prevent a package from being installed on Ubuntu / 在 Ubuntu 系统中阻止安装某个软件包

This article shows how to prevent a certain package from being installed, manually or as a dependency, on Linux systems using apt (apt-get) like Ubuntu and Debian.
这篇文章介绍如何在使用 apt (apt-get) 的系统上(例如 Ubuntu 和 Debian),防止某个软件包被安装,包括手动或被依赖。

It utilizes the “pinning” feature of apt, which you can read about in detail with man apt_preferences .
使用的原理是 apt 的 “pinning” 功能,可以通过 man apt_preferences 获取详细文档。

  1. Say we want to block “ttf-mscorefonts-installer” from being installed, which is a recommended dependency of “ubuntu-restricted-extras”. When we use apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras , the package will be automatically installed. If we use the “–no-install-recommends” switch, many other packages will be ignored, but we just want to block that one specific package.
    假设我们不想安装 “ttf-mscorefonts-installer” 软件包,但它是 “ubuntu-restricted-extras” 的推荐依赖。如果我们使用 apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras 命令,则依赖软件包也会自动安装。我们可以用 “–no-install-recommends” 开关阻止推荐依赖,但是同时会阻止其它很多软件包。接下来的方法适用于只阻止特定的一个软件包。
  2. In the folder “/etc/apt/preferences.d” we create a plain text file “block-package”, with the following contents:
    在 “/etc/apt/preferences.d” 文件夹中创建一个文本文件 “block-package”,内容如下:

    Package: ttf-mscorefonts-installer
    Pin: version *
    Pin-Priority: -10
  3. With a negative priority, the package will not be installed either manually or as a dependency when using apt-get.
    由于设置了负优先级,在使用 apt-get 时,这个软件包无论手动还是依赖都不会被安装。



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